Test with answers on the topic «Vaccination against human papillomavirus prospects and evidence base»

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Diseases caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) refer to diseases, primarily sexually transmitted, rarely contact, way with a latent beginning, chronic persistent course and manifest both benign and malignant neoplasms in the area of the entrance gate of the infection. This determines the need to introduce new methods of timely diagnosis and early prevention of HPV infection and HPV-associated lesions. HPV types with a high degree of oncogenic risk cause the development of cervical cancer (CC) in almost 100% of cases, vulva/vaginal cancer in 40% of cases. Without a doubt, the primary prevention of cancer of the vagina, vulva and cervix is an urgent problem. The development and widespread implementation of vaccine prevention will make a significant contribution to solving this problem.

1. Absolute contraindications to vaccination against the human papillomavirus are

1) hypersensitivity to the components of the vaccine;+
2) postvaccinal complications of previous administration of the vaccine against papillomavirus infection;+
3) development of severe systemic allergic reactions;+
4) low-grade fever.

2. Anogenital warts are a clinical manifestation of infection with the human papillomavirus of

1) types 18 and 31;
2) types 33 and 39;
3) types 51 and 56;
4) types 6 and 11.+

3. In the Russian Federation, cervical cancer (CC) occupies

1) the 1st place - in the structure of mortality among women of the most active and working age up to 45 years;+
2) the 2nd place in the prevalence of malignant neoplasms of the reproductive system;+
3) the 3rd place in the prevalence of all malignant neoplasms;
4) the 4th place in the number of years of life lost.+

4. Currently, there are no methods for screening for HPV-associated oncological diseases:

1) cancer of the anal canal;+
2) cancer of the vagina;+
3) vulvar cancer;+
4) cervical cancer.

5. Regarding anal cancer, the following statements are true:

1) the incidence of anal cancer in the general population is increasing among both men and women, especially in developed countries;+
2) the incidence of anal cancer is recorded much more often among HIV-infected people;+
3) HPV type 11 persistence can lead to more than 70% of anal cancer cases;
4) HPV type 16 persistence can lead to more than 70% of anal cancer cases.+

6. Regarding anogenital warts, the following statements are true:

1) Anogenital warts (AW) ais the most common clinical manifestation of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV);
2) anogenital warts (AW) is the most common clinical manifestation of low-risk oncogenic papillomaviruses;+
3) according to WHO, there are more than 42 million cases of anogenital warts worldwide every year;+
4) according to WHO, there are about 27 million cases of anogenital warts worldwide every year.

7. Regarding vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV), the following statements are true:

1) HPV vaccination eliminates the parallel possibility of vaccination against other infections;
2) the course of vaccination is recommended to be carried out before the beginning of sexual activity;+
3) the course of vaccination is recommended to be carried out after childbirth;
4) the main target group for vaccination should be girls from 9-10 years old to 13 years old.+

8. Regarding vaccination against human papillomavirus and pregnancy are true statements:

1) in case of vaccination carried out during pregnancy, it should be recommended to terminate this pregnancy;
2) if a woman becomes pregnant after the start of the vaccination series, the administration of the remaining dose should be postponed until the end of pregnancy;+
3) women who are planning a pregnancy should postpone vaccination until it is completed;+
4) women planning a pregnancy should be vaccinated according to a shortened scheme.

9. Regarding immunization against the human papillomavirus in the puberty period, the following statements are true:

1) the second dose is taken 2 months after the first dose;
2) if the second dose was taken earlier than 5 months after the first, the third dose should be taken necessarily;+
3) it is carried out according to a two-dose scheme;+
4) it is carried out according to the three-dose scheme.

10. Regarding the methods of vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV), the following statements are true:

1) after vaccination, the patient should be under the supervision of the doctor of the immunoprophylaxis office for 30 minutes or more;+
2) after vaccination, the patient should be under the supervision of the doctor of the immunoprophylaxis office for at least 15 minutes;
3) vaccinations should be carried out in the conditions of the immunoprophylaxis office;
4) vaccinations should be carried out in the conditions of the vaccination office.+

11. Regarding human papillomavirus infection, the following statements are true:

1) PVI is the cause of more than half of all cancers in women caused by infection;+
2) from 20 till 60 % of the sexually active population becomes infected during their lifetime;
3) from 70 till 80 % of the sexually active population becomes infected during their lifetime;+
4) the prevalence of papillomavirus infection (PVI) ranks first among sexually transmitted infections.+

12. Regarding the duration of protection against papillomavirus infection in vaccinated patients, the following statements are true:

1) protective antibody titers after a full course of vaccination with a tetravalent vaccine persist for up to 10 years;+
2) protective antibody titers after a full course of vaccination with a tetravalent vaccine persist for up to 5 years;
3) the antibody titer after the three-dose vaccination regimen remains stable for at least 15 years;
4) the antibody titer after the three-dose vaccination regimen remains stable for at least 5 years.+

13. Regarding vulvar cancer, the following statements are true:

1) in the structure of oncological pathology of malignant cancer of the vulva and vagina is about 3 to 7%;+
2) vulvar cancer is associated with the human papillomavirus;+
3) vulvar cancer is caused by a genetic predisposition;
4) most often, vulvar cancer develops in women 65-75 years old.+

14. Regarding the quadrivalent papillomavirus vaccine the claims, the following statements are true:

1) the vaccine is injected intradermally into the deltoid muscle of the shoulder;
2) the vaccine is injected intramuscularly into the deltoid muscle of the shoulder or the upper outer surface of the middle third of the thigh;+
3) the recommended course of vaccination is carried out according to the standard scheme, consisting of 3 doses;+
4) the recommended course of vaccination is carried out according to the standard scheme, consisting of 4 doses.

15. Regarding the epidemiology of cervical cancer, the following statements are true:

1) the incidence of breast cancer ranges from 1 to 50 cases per 100 thousand women;+
2) cervical cancer accounts for 84 % of cancers associated with the human papillomavirus;+
3) cervical cancer (CC) ranks 2nd in the world among all types of malignant neoplasms in women;
4) cervical cancer (CC) ranks 4th in the world among all types of malignant neoplasms in women.+

16. Regarding the effectiveness of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) , the following statements are true:

1) The effectiveness of HPV vaccines can be assessed by reducing the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia CINI;
2) The effectiveness of HPV vaccines can be assessed by reducing the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia CINII-III;+
3) the effectiveness of vaccines in initially infected individuals is higher than in HPV-negative individuals;
4) The effectiveness of vaccines in initially uninfected individuals is higher than in HPV-positive individuals.+

17. The leading mechanism of transmission of the human papillomavirus is

1) airborne;
2) contact;+
3) vector-borne;
4) fecal-oral.

18. The human papillomavirus (HPV) has a tropicity to epithelial cells of

1) skin;+
2) mammary glands;
3) oral cavity;+
4) cervical mucosa.+

19. What family does the human papillomavirus belong to?

1) Ampullaviridae;
2) Papillomaviridae;+
3) Retroviridae;
4) Sphaerolipoviridae.

20. Human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 cause cervical cancer

1) in 10 % of cases;
2) in 23 % of cases;
3) in 60 % of cases;
4) in 70 % of cases.+

21. Human papillomavirus is a group of common

1) DNA-containing viruses that affect the epithelium of the skin and mucous membranes;+
2) DNA-containing viruses that affect the epithelium of the small intestine;
3) RNA-containing viruses affecting the endometrium;
4) RNA-containing viruses that affect the epithelium of the skin and mucous membranes.

22. The bivalent vaccine provides protection against

1) CIN II in the population of initially uninfected women – 54%;+
2) CIN II in the population of initially uninfected women – 65%;
3) CIN II у женщин, seronegative by 14 oncogenic types - 65%;+
4) CIN III у женщин, seronegative by 14 oncogenic types – more than 93%.+

23. Bivalent recombinant vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) contains

1) protein L1 of HPV type 16;+
2) protein L1 of HPV type 18;+
3) protein L1 of HPV type 31;
4) protein L1 of HPV type.

24. For the primary specific prevention of diseases associated with papillomavirus infection, in the world are registered following vaccines:

1) divalent;+
2) nine-valent;+
3) pentavalent;
4) quadrivalent.+

25. To prevent the occurrence of cervical cancer, of paramount importance is

1) usage of barrier methods of contraception;
2) examination sexual partners for the presence of sexual infections;
3) early detection and elimination of precancerous conditions;+
4) health education work on the ways of infection with the human papillomavirus.

26. The protective effect of vaccination may be reduced due to

1) a genetic defect;+
2) alcohol abuse;
3) receiving immunosuppressant therapy;+
4) taking oral contraceptives.

27. Invasive cancer is preceded by precancerous lesions:

1) intraepithelial neoplasia of the vagina;+
2) intraepithelial neoplasia of the vulva;+
3) leukoplakia of the cervix;
4) cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of the cervix.+

28. Infect the epithelial layer of the urogenital tract can

1) 10 types of human papillomavirus;
2) 15 types of human papillomavirus;
3) 25 types of human papillomavirus;
4) more than 30 types of human papillomavirus.+

29. The most common post-vaccination complications of human papillomavirus vaccines include

1) pain in the injection area;+
2) bronchospasm;
3) redness in the injection area;+
4) nausea.

30. The types of viruses of high oncogenic risk include the human papillomavirus of

1) 33 type;+
2) 39 type;
3) 45 type;
4) 51 type.

31. The types of high-risk oncogenic viruses include

1) 16 type;+
2) 18 type;+
3) 39 type;+
4) 43 type.

32. The types of viruses of low oncogenic risk include the human papillomavirus of

1) 11 type;+
2) 16 type;
3) 35 type;
4) 56 type.

33. The types of low-risk oncogenic viruses include

1) 16 type;
2) 18 type;
3) 42 type;+
4) 44 type.+

34. Risk factors for the progression of cervical cancer include

1) alcohol abuse;
2) smoking;+
3) concomitant sexually transmitted infections;+
4) the type of HPV and its oncogenic potential.+

35. Mass vaccination of adolescents of both sexes is carried out

1) in Australia;+
2) in New Zealand;+
3) in Russian Federation;
4) in USA.+

36. The part of anal cancer caused by human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 accounts for

1) 39 %;
2) 45 %;
3) 57 %;
4) 87 %.+

37. The part of oropharyngeal cancer caused by human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 accounts for

1) 19 %;
2) 33 %;
3) 71 %;
4) 89%.+

38. The highest carcinogenic potentialthe has human papillomavirus of

1) 16 type;+
2) 18 type;
3) 33 type;
4) 52 type.

39. Low-oncogenic types of human papillomavirus are responsible for the development of vaginal cancer

1) in 1,2 % of cases;
2) in 5,6 % of cases;
3) in 56 % of cases;
4) in 9,3% of cases.+

40. Oropharyngeal cancer combines oncological diseases of several localizations of

1) larynx;+
2) nasopharynx;
3) oral cavity;+
4) oropharynx.+

41. The indication for the prescribing a tetravalent vaccine against the human papillomavirus is prevention among girls and women of

1) anal cancer;+
2) vulvar cancer;+
3) cancer of the small intestine;
4) cervical cancer.+

42. When conducting vaccination, it is necessary to be guided by

1) instructions for the use of immunobiological drugs;+
2) national calendar of preventive vaccinations;+
3) regulatory documents on the organization of immunization;+
4) the results of meta-analyses in the area of vaccine prevention.

43. The risk of transmission of the human papillomavirus with a single sexual contact is

1) 10 %;
2) 30 %;
3) 50 %;
4) 80 %.+

44. Types of human papillomavirus of high oncogenic risk cause the development of vulvar/vaginal cancer

1) in 23 % of cases;
2) in 40 % of cases;+
3) in 50 % of cases;
4) in 90 % of cases.

45. The factors contributing to infection with the human papillomavirus are

1) barrier contraception;
2) immunodeficiency states;+
3) early onset of sexual activity;+
4) frequent change of sexual partners.+

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