Test with answers on the topic «Vitamin D deficiency among children»

Вашему вниманию представляется Test with answers on the topic «Vitamin D deficiency among children» в рамках программы НМО: непрерывного медицинского образования для медицинских работников (врачи, медсестры и фармацевты). Test with answers on the topic «Vitamin D deficiency among children» в рамках программы НМО: непрерывного медицинского образования для медицинского персонала высшего и среднего звена (врачи, медицинские сестры и фармацевтические работники) позволяет успешнее подготовиться к итоговой аттестации и/или понять данную тему.
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The problem of the Vitamin D deficiency among the population of many countries demonstrates the global nature. Despite the almost a century - long history of studying vitamin D, the researches during last three decades allow to take a fresh look on the unique biological properties of this micronutrient. Opening the ways of vitamin D metabolism and the receptors to it in the all organs and tissues of the human’s body has led to the understanding that normal provision of this micronutrient determines an effective functioning and preventing the ricks of developing some pathologies during the whole life. The traditional ideas of vitamin D like of exclusively «antirachitic» vitamin in recent years have strongly changed that has led to the increasing of the research interest to the homeostasis violation and vitamin D metabolism. Nowadays, it is accepted to subdivide all the changes, which occur in the result of low or insufficient, content of vitamin D on the calcemic (bone) and non-calcemic (extra-osseous) manifestations. Non-calcemic effects of vitamin D and its role in the regulation of the expression of the essential genes in recent years attracted to this nutrient the doctors of all specialties, made them take a fresh look on its place in homeostasis of adult body and significantly expanded the spectrum of diseases and conditions, when monitoring of the level of calcidiol is required.

1. 1 mcg cholecalciferol it is

1) 10 IU;
2) 20 IU;
3) 30 IU;
4) 40 IU.+

2. Activated vitamin D receptor (VDR) influences on

1) gene transcription;
2) gene translocation;
3) gene translation;
4) gene expression.+

3. Active form of calcitriol is synthesized in

1) skin;
2) bone tissue;
3) liver;
4) the kidneys;+
5) spleen.

4. Major part of peak bone mass forms by

1) 12 years old;
2) 18 years old;+
3) 24 years old;
4) 6 years old.

5. In the liver is produced

1) 1,25(ОН)2D3;
2) 24,25(ОН)2D3;
3) 25(ОН)D3;+
4) 7-dehydrocholesterol.

6. Vitamin D Deficiency Rickets is faced in the age of

1) infancy;+
2) neonatal;
3) adolescent;
4) early childhood.+

7. Vitamin D Deficiency Rickets is necessary differentiate with

1) De Tony-Debre-Fanconi syndrome;+
2) galactosemia;
3) hypophosphatasia;+
4) glomerulonephritis;
5) mucopolysaccharidosis;
6) osteogenesis imperfecta.+

8. For the first time vitamin D was obtained in

1) 1814 year;
2) 1914 year;
3) 1924 year;+
4) 1934 year.

9. Distinguish periods of Rickets:

1) the initial period;+
2) aggravation period;
3) residual changes period;+
4) peak period;+
5) convalescence period;+
6) remissions period.

10. Vitamin D deficiency is diagnosed with the level of calcitriol blood serum

1) 21-29 ng/ml;
2) 30-100 ng/ml;
3) more than 100 ng/ml;
4) less than 200 ng/ml.+

11. Vitamin D deficiency increases the rick of development of

1) Gaucher’s disease;
2) Crohn’s disease;+
3) Niemann-Pick disease;
4) Parkinson's disease.+

12. Constipations when Rickets is conditioned by

1) anemia;
2) muscle hypertension;
3) muscle hypotension;+
4) violation of the balance of microflora in the intestine.

13. To the risk group of development Vitamin D Deficiency Rickets refers

1) children with pathology of the skin;+
2) children with kidney pathology;+
3) children with Down’s syndrome;
4) children with malabsorption syndrome;+
5) large-scale children;
6) premature children.+

14. To the bone manifestations of the vitamin D deficiency refer

1) osteomalacia;+
2) osteoporosis;+
3) osteosclerosis;
4) osteochondrosis.

15. To the primary osteoporosis refer

1) Brooks syndrome;+
2) Marfan syndrome;+
3) Olmsted syndrome;
4) Ehlers–Danlos syndrome.+

16. Which changes of the blood acid-base balance is noted when Rickets?

1) metabolic alkalosis;
2) respiratory alkalosis;
3) metabolic acidosis;+
4) respiratory acidosis.

17. Calcitriol predominately is synthesized in

1) liver;
2) the kidneys;+
3) the large intestine;+
4) the small intestine.

18. Clinical manifestations of the vitamin D deficiency subdivide on

1) extra-osseous;+
2) extra-cartilaginous;
3) bone;+
4) cartilaginous.

19. Craniotabes is

1) tenderness to palpation of the bones of the skull;
2) small size of the big fontanelle;
3) compliance to palpation of the edges of the big fontanelle;
4) premature closing of the cranial sutures;
5) softening and compliance to palpation of the cranial sutures.+

20. Medical dose of the vitamin D is selected basing on

1) level 1,25(ОН)2D of blood;
2) level 25(ОН)D of blood;+
3) level кальция of the urine;
4) level of the total blood calcium.

21. Medical dose of the vitamin medication

1) is close to the human's need;
2) prevent avitaminosis;+
3) provides the body need with nutrient;
4) Exceeds the physiological need in 10–100 times.+

22. On the outlet of the previtamin-D from the skin into the systemic blood flow influences

1full sleep;
2) physical activity;+
3) nature of nutrition;
4) integrity of the skin.

23. Vitamin D deficiency is diagnosed when the level of calcitriol of the blood sera is

1) 10-20 ng/ml;
2) 21-29 ng/ml;+
3) 30-100 ng/ml;
4) менее 10 ng/ml.

24. The physiological need norm in vitamin D among the children 0–18 years old is

1) 10 mcg;+
2) 15 mcg;
3) 20 mcg;
4) 5 mcg.

25. Main symptoms of the Rickets primary period are

1) anemia;
2) white dermography;
3) weakness;
4) hepato/splenomegaly;
5) bone deformities;
6) red dermography;+
7) muscle hypotension;+
8) increased excitability.+

26. Main symptoms of the Rickets residual manifestations period are

1) anemia;
2) white dermography;
3) weakness;
4) hepato/splenomegaly;
5) bone deformities;+
6) red dermography;
7) muscle hypotension;
8) increased excitability.

27. Main symptoms of the Rickets peak period are

1) anemia;+
2) white dermography;
3) weakness;
4) hepato/splenomegaly; +
5) bone deformities;+
6) red dermography;+
7) muscle hypotension;+
8) increased excitability.+

28. Main sources of vitamin D are

1) egg white;
2) egg yolk;+
3) liver of the fish of fat varieties;+
4) soy.

29. Osteoporosis is characterized by

1) normal structure of bone tissue;
2) reconstruction of the bone structure;+
3) increasing of bone mass;
4) decreasing of bone mass.+

30. Acute course of the Rickets is faced more often among children

1) 1–3 months old;+
2) second half year of the life;
3) full-term babies;
4) premature babies.+

31. Predisposing factors to development of osteoporosis are

1) bad habits;+
2) high birth weight;
3) the excess of insolation;
4) low birth weight;+
5) taking ibuprofen.

32. The predecessor of vitamin D in the skin is

1) 1- dehydrocholesterol;
2) 3- dehydrocholesterol;
3) 5- dehydrocholesterol;
4) 7- dehydrocholesterol.+

33. The contraindications for the taking vitamin D are

1) hydrocephalus;
2) hypervitaminosis D;+
3) hypovitaminosis D;
4) microcephaly.+

34. The preventive dose of vitamin D among children 1–3 years old is

1) 1000 IU/day;
2) 1500 IU/day;+
3) 2000 IU/day;
4) 500 IU/day.

35. The preventive dose of vitamin is

1) close to the physiological need;+
2) prevents from avitaminosis;
3) provides with the body need in nutrient;+
4) exceeds physiological need in 10–100 times.

36. X-ray signs of the Rickets peak are

1) indistinctness of ossification nuclei;+
2) osteoporosis in the zones of bone growth;+
3) generalized osteoporosis;
4) blurring of the epiphysis border/metaphysics;+
5) a clear border of the epiphysis border/metaphysics;
6) ossification nuclei in accordance with the age.

37. The course of rickets can be

1) crises;
2) acute;+
3) subacute;+
4) recurrent;+
5) chronic.

38. Children’s osteoporosis has forms

1) innate;+
2) induced;
3) acquired;+
4) iatrogenic.

39. UVR leads to the producing in the skin

1) 1,25(ОН)2D3;
2) 24,25(ОН)2D3;
3) 25(ОН)D3;
4) 7-dehydrocholesterol.+

40. The forms of vitamin D are

1) alcoholera;
2) hydrocholesterol;
3) cholecalciferol;+
4) ergocalciferol.+

41. Cholecalciferol gets in the humans body

1) with the inhaled air;
2) with medicines;+
3) with food of animal origin;+
4) with food of plant origin.

42. The exogenous rickets causes are

1) redundant insolation;
2) impaired absorption of vitamin D in the intestine;
3) the violation of the processes of hydroxylation of inactive forms of vitamin D into his active forms;
4) insufficient sun exposure;+
5) insufficient intake of vitamin D from food;+
6) insufficient intake of phosphates and calcium from the outside into the child's body.+

43. The endogenous rickets causes are

1) ) redundant insolation;
2) impaired absorption of vitamin D in the intestine;+
3) the violation of the processes of hydroxylation of inactive forms of vitamin D into his active forms;+
4) insufficient sun exposure;
5) insufficient intake of vitamin D from food;
6) insufficient intake of phosphates and calcium from the outside into the child's body.

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